More evidence that a switch is not (always) a switch: Binning bilinguals reveals dissociations between task and language switching.

The current study examined the cognitive mechanisms underlying task and language switching by comparing them with each other, and with flanker task performance, at multiple points of the response time distribution. Ninety-eight Spanish-English bilinguals completed cued language and color-shape switching tasks, and 2 versions of a nonlinguistic flanker task. Bilinguals responded more quickly and exhibited smaller mixing costs in the language task, but surprisingly exhibited larger switching costs than in the color-shape task. This language-task disadvantage was especially apparent in slower reaction times (RTs), because switching costs increased significantly through the slowest end of the RT distribution only in the language task (but not in the color-shape task). Although the flanker task resembled the language task to a greater extent than the color-shape task in some measures (e.g., flanker effects were largest in the slowest RT bins, like language switching costs), in other measures the 2 switching tasks resembled each other and the flanker task stood out as different (i.e., trial sequence effects and correlations between tasks in various cost measures). These results reveal that different measures of switching costs even in tasks with very similar designs, vary in the extent to which they measure switching ability, both between tasks, and even between different trials within the same task. Distributional analysis of RTs across tasks suggests that slow responses, particularly when switching between non-naturally competing responses, might not measure switching ability at all, and raises the possibility that smaller switching costs can even reflect reduced ability to juggle tasks in some cases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)