Men, masculinities, depression: Implications for mental health services from a Delphi expert consensus study.

Tailoring psychological treatments to men’s specific needs has long been a concern considering that many men are reluctant to seek or engage with professional help. The present study aimed to seek consensus via an expert panel regarding essential aspects to include in practitioner training programs for those working with men experiencing depression. A 2-round Delphi study was conducted to gain consensus among practitioners, researchers, and educators about the importance of a pool of 30 potential training program components across the following 6 domains: masculinity frameworks; impact of gender on clinical practice; depression in men; assessment and formulation; male-specific adaptations to treatment and; language and communication. The panelists comprised 53 multidisciplinary international experts in the men’s mental health. Panelists were asked to rate each item on a 5-point likert scale from should not be included to essential. Consensus was defined as >80% of respondents scoring within 2 points on the Likert scale. After 2 Delphi rounds, consensus was reached for 22 of 30 items, and a further 2 items approached consensus. All items focused on features of depression among men and the impact of masculinities on clinical practice were endorsed. Items related to suicidality and depression diagnosis received the highest consensus, and the language and communication domain received limited support and was removed. This study provides a set of consensus-based recommendations for practitioner training. The recommendations offer actionable, gender-specific adaptations to psychological treatments for depression in men to be developed and trialed in practitioner training programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)