HIV testing in clinical and community settings for an international sample of Latino immigrants and nonimmigrants.

Latino/as in the United States and Spain make up a disproportionate percentage of cases of HIV infection, and often are diagnosed later than their non-Latino/a counterparts. Understanding the factors that affect HIV testing in different contexts is critical to best promote HIV testing, which is considered essential to both prevention and early treatment. This study explored differences in HIV testing rates among Latino/a participants in an international study designed to examine behavioral health screening for Latino/a populations. We collected data on testing rates and results from 407 Latino/as–both first generation immigrants and those of Latino/a descent–in the United States (Boston) and Spain (Madrid and Barcelona), through interviews conducted in community clinics and agencies. Using multivariate logit models, we evaluated predictors of screening and positive testing, adjusting for sex, age, and clinic type. HIV testing rates were highest in Boston, followed by Barcelona and Madrid (82%, 69%, and 59%, respectively, p < .0001). In multivariate regression models, Barcelona and Madrid patients were significantly less likely to have received testing than Boston patients. Significant positive predictors of HIV testing were: education level higher than high school, HIV concerns, infrequent condom use, other risk behaviors, reports of discrimination, and higher benzodiazepine consumption. Significant differences in HIV testing found in this study help to illuminate best practices for engaging patients in testing across sites. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)