Building resilience: The conceptual basis and research evidence for resilience training programs.

The relationship between adverse experiences and later development has been explored by many researchers, leading to the conceptualization of resilience as a factor explaining the normal or optimal development of some individuals exposed to adversity. Today many different interventions exist aiming to improve the ability of individuals to respond to adversity. In this narrative literature review, we evaluate the literature surrounding resilience and resilience training, discussing the quality of the evidence supporting resilience training, theoretical and practical differences between types of training, and the impact of resilience and psychological training on outcome measures across a variety of settings. The results of our review show that the quality of the literature is mixed, resilience training is not well differentiated from other forms of training, and that the impact of psychological training on later functioning depends heavily on the type of outcome measured and the setting of the training. Further research must be conducted prior to the implementation of resilience training programs in order to assure their efficacy and effectiveness in proposed contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)