Associations of multiple acculturation domains with smoking status among Latino adults.

Few efficacious interventions for tobacco use exist for Latinos. Identification of cultural factors relevant to smoking among Latinos can inform the development of efficacious interventions for Latino smokers. Acculturation is associated with smoking, especially among Latinas, but extant research is limited by operationalization of acculturation with unidirectional, single-domain proxies. We examined associations of multiple domains of acculturation with gender and smoking status among Latino adults. Cross-sectional data from 140 bilingual Latino adults was utilized. Acculturation was measured with the 4 subscales of the Multidimensional Acculturation Scale II (MAS-II). Logistic regression analyses tested interaction effects between MAS-II American and Latino Cultural Identification subscales, English and Spanish Proficiency subscales, and their interactions with gender, on smoking status. Higher English Proficiency was associated with greater odds of being a smoker at Spanish Proficiency scores of 4.5 or higher. Higher Latino Cultural Identification was associated with lower odds of being a smoker among women but not men. Acculturation toward American culture, per se, may not be a risk factor for smoking; rather, its influence depends on Latino culture maintenance. Unlike in other areas of mental/behavioral health among Latinos, biculturalism may not be protective against smoking. The association between acculturation and smoking among Latinas may be a function of loss of Latino culture identification. Intervention programs should consider targeting these at-risk individuals. Longitudinal work that corroborates current findings and identifies mechanisms underlying these associations is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)